معرفی تاریخ مختصر افغانستان History of Afghanistan
50,000 BCE-20,000 BCE:
• Archaeologists have identified evidence of Stone Age technology in Aq Kupruk, and Hazar Sum. Plant remains at the foothill of the Hindu Kush Mountains indicate, that North Afghanistan was one of the earliest places to domestic plants and animals.
3000 BCE-2000 BCE:
• Bronze might have been invented in ancient Afghanistan around this time.
• First true urban centers rise in two main sites in Afghanistan--Mundigak, and Deh Morasi Ghundai.
• Mundigak (near modern day Kandahar)--had an economic base of wheat, barley, sheep and goats. Also, evidence indicates that Mundigak could have been a provincial capital of the Indus valley civilization.
• Ancient Afghanistan--crossroads between Mesopotamia, and other Civilizations.
2500 BC- 1000 BC:
• Expansion of the Aryan base. The original inhabitants of this region were pushed towards eastern India where new schools of thoughts and a new imperial culture would emerge in course of time.
2000 BCE- 1500 BCE:
• Aryan tribes in Aryana (Ancient Afghanistan)
• The City of Kabul is thought to have been established during this time.
• Rig Veda may have been created in Afghanistan around this time.
• Evidence of early nomadic Iron Age in Aq Kapruk IV.
600 BCE -- (There is some speculation about this date) :
• Zoroaster introduces a new religion in Bactria (Balkh)---(Zoroastrianism--Monotheistic religion) (about 522 BC)--Zoroaster dies during nomadic invasion near Balkh.
522 BCE--486 BCE:
• Darius the Great expands the Achaemenid (Persian) empire to its peak, when it takes most of Afghanistan, including Aria (Herat), Bactriana (Balk, and present-day Mazar-i-Shariff), Margiana (Merv), Gandhara (Kabul, Jalalabad and Peshawar), Sattagydia (Ghazni to the Indus river), Arachosia (Kandahar, and Quetta), and Drangiana (Sistan).
• The defeat of Seleucus 1 by Chandragupta Maurya.
• The reign of Ashoka
250 -128 BC:
• Greaco-Bactrian kingdom at Balkh.
• Ptolemy's mention of Kabul as Kabura.
50 - 250 AD:
• Emergence of the Kushana power under Kanishka.
225 – 600 AD:
• Sassanids occupy and establish their rule.
• Invasion of the White Huns. They destroy the Buddhist culture, and leave most of the country in ruins.
• Independent Yaftalee rule in Afghanistan.
• Invasion of the Arabs and the first contact with Islam.
8th - 10th century:
• The reign of Hindushahis who ruled Kabul and eastern part of Afghan territory.
• The rule of Ghaznavids.
• The reign of Mahmud Ghaznawi.
• Timor Len crowned in Balkh.
• Babur invades and rules from Kabul.
• Ahmad Shah Abdali comes to power.
• Timor Shah shifted the capital from Kabul to Kandahar.
• Said Jamal-ul Din Afghan credited with the Pan-Islamic movements in the region.
• First Anglo Afghan war.
• Consolidation of power by Dost Muhammad Khan.
• Amir Shir Ali Khan.
• Second Anglo Afghan war.
• Rule of Dost Muhammad's grandson, Abdur Rahman Khan.
• Amanullah Shah.
August 1919 AD:
• Afghanistan Declare its independence from Great Britain after 3rd and final Anglo Afghan war.
• End of British involvement in Afghan affairs.
Third Anglo-Afghan war:
• Once again, the British are defeated, and Afghanistan gains full control of her foreign affairs.
• Amanullah Khan initiates a series of ambitious efforts at social and political modernization.
1933 to 1973 AD:
• The long reign of Zahir Shah
1973 to 1978 AD:
• Mohammad Daud Khan seizes power in a nearly bloodless coup. Zahir Shah went into exile in Europe.
April 1978 AD:
• Marxist coup. Mohammad Daud was killed in the coup. The People's Democratic party of Afghanistan (PDPA) headed by Nur Mohammad Taraki comes to power.
• End of Taraki. He was removed from power. Hafizullah Amin his lieutenant takes over and kills Taraki.
• Soviet Russia marches into Afghanistan. Amin was executed and replaced by Babrak Karmal.
• Soviet to withdraw from Afghanistan in phases. Babrak Karmal replaced by Najibullah Government.
• The Russians finally withdraw. However Najibullah continues while the battle with Mujahideen goes on.
• The Mujahideen take Kabul and liberate Afghanistan, UN protected Najibullah.
• The Mujahideen form an Islamic State.
• Professor Burhannudin Rabbani is elected President. Hekmatyar’s forces fire missiles and rockets into Kabul.
• The rise of the Taliban in the southern Afghanistan.
Sept. 24, 1996:
• The Taliban captured Kabul, supported by foreign powers.
• Taliban recognized as legitimate rulers by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE. Most other countries continue to officially recognize the Islamic State of Afghanistan under President Rabbani.
• August--Taliban finally capture Mazar-i-Sharif, and massacre thousands of innocent civilians afterwards, mostly Hazaras.
• August 20th--United States launches cruise missiles hitting Afghanistan's Khost region. US states its intent was to destroy so called terrorist bases/training facilities used by Osama bin Laden and his followers.
• September--The ex-king of Afghanistan, Mohammad Zahir, calls for a grand assembly, or Loya Jirga to discuss ways of bringing peace to the country. The United Front soon welcomes the idea.
• Taliban blow up giant Buddha Statues in defiance of international efforts to save them.
• Taliban order religious minorities to wear tags identifying themselves as non-Muslims, and Hindu women to veil themselves.
2001 September 9:
• Ahmad Shah Masood, legendary guerrilla and leader of the main opposition to the Taliban, is killed, apparently by assassins belonging to International Terrorism, posing as journalists.
• USA launches air strikes against Afghanistan after Taliban refuse to hand over Osama bin Laden, held responsible for the September 11 attacks on America.
• Opposition forces seize Mazar-e-Sharif and within days march into Kabul and other key cities.
2001- 5 December:
• Afghan groups agree deal in Bonn for interim government.
2001- 22 December:
• Hamid Karzai is sworn in as head of a 30-member interim government.
• First contingent of foreign peacekeepers in place.
• Former King Mohammad Zahir returns.
2002 April 25:
• The Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan declares Ahmad Shah Massoud, National Hero of Afghanistan.
• UN Security Council extends mandate of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) until December 2002.
• Loya Jirga, or Grand National council, elects Hamid Karzai as interim head of state. He picks members of his administration which is to serve until 2004.
• President Hamid Karzai and Pakistani, Turkmen leaders sign agreement paving way for construction of gas pipeline through Afghanistan.
• Asian Development Bank resumes lending to Afghanistan after 23-year gap
• NATO takes control of security in Kabul. It is the organization’s first operational commitment outside Europe in its history.
• Grand National Assembly - or Loya Jirga - adopts new constitution.
• President Hamid Karzai announces Afghanistan's first post-Taliban elections to be held in September.
• Afghanistan secures $8.2bn (£4.5bn) in aid over the next three years.
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